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Solid Waste Capture/Separation - Mechanical Filtration
Solid Waste Capture/Separation, or mechanical filtration, is the separation
of solid waste from water using a filter medium to capture and
hold waste until it can be removed from the filter. Many styles
of mechanical filters are available, including both gravity
and pressure designs. It is key that your style of mechanical
filter is adequate in both performance and maintenance when
used in a heavy solids application, such as aquaculture, mammal
bathing pools, or resale fish systems.
Gravity Filter Bags
Gravity Filter Bags are attached to gravity-flow plumbing,
very effective at trapping solid waste and holding it
until the bags are removed and cleaned. Gravity Filter
Bags are extremely cost efficient for the benefits they
Pressure Filter Bag Canister
Consider a Pressure Bag Filter Canister when backwashing
is not an option. Pressure Bag Filter Canisters are commonly
used as a post-mechanical filter, polishing the water
before it travels back to the tank. We recommend using
a flow rate no greater than 70 gpm per canister containing
a 100 micron filter bag insert. A lower flow rate may
be required for lower micron porosities.
Commercial Sand/Media Filter
The Commercial Sand/Media Filter is designed for heavy solid
waste filtering. Sand/Media filters when coupled with UV Sterilizers
offer effective solid waste filtering while solving waterborne
algae problems. Dual Lateral Sand /Media Filters offer an
exclusive “dual lateral design.” This dual
lateral design increases filtering and back-washing efficiency.
During the backwash cycle, the dual lateral system promotes
better fluidization creating a better cleaning of the
Drum Micro-Screen Filters
Micro-Screen Filters use a specific micron-sized filter
screen to trap solid waste as water passes through it.
Although a variety of micron porosities are available,
these filters commonly operate with a filter screen of
60 microns. Solid waste laden water enters the filter
from the inside of the drum. The screen then traps the
waste as water flows through. As solids accumulate on
the screen, the water level inside the drum rises and
triggers the sump's float valve. This initiates screen
cleaning and waste effluent discharge. Micro-Screen Filters
are very efficient and require little routine maintenance.
Biological Filtration is a natural process. Colonizing beneficial aerobic
bacteria (oxygen consuming nitrifying bacteria) transform harmful
toxins (ammonia/nitrite) into less harmful elements (nitrate)
through the process of nitrification. The biological filtering
process within an aquatic environment is not restricted to the biological filter itself. Rather, nitrifying bacteria colonize on many surfaces
inside the pond/tank, such as the substrate, walls of the pool,
and plumbing. The waste load and water temperature within the
system largely determines the time it takes to complete the nitrification cycle. However, it usually
takes about six weeks to complete.
Fluidized Bed Biological Filter
Fluidized Bed Biological Filters are perhaps the most
efficient biological filters available considering the
incredible amount of surface area they offer. Garnet
or silica sand is usually the media of choice for this
filter, with media size ranging from .45mm to 2 mm.
The finer the sand, the slower the water flow through
the filter bed. Fluidized Bed Biological Filters are
up-flow filters, the water enters the filter bed from
the bottom and circulates evenly up through it. Our
"U Shape" design keeps the media bed from
packing down during filter shutdown, a common problem
associated with many brands of these filters.
Bubble Bead Filter
The Bubble Bead Filter is the floating bead
filter developed by our long-time customer Louisiana
State University. This unique filter is also an up-flow
filter and uses floating plastic beads as its filter
media. While solids laden water flows up through the
media bed, larger solids settle to the bottom of the
filter vessel. After a short time of operation, the
bead walls accumulate a sticky flocculent that finer
solids will adhere to during filtering. The filter media
bed is backwashed using strong bursts of air. The air
travels into the filter vessel, up through the bead
media bed, knocking off solids that settle to the bottom
of the filter. During this process, settled-out waste
effluent is discharged from the filter.
Protein Skimming, or Foam Fractionation separates dissolved wastes from
water using tiny air bubbles that accumulate fats, phenols,
and very small particles onto their bubble walls. The protein
skimming process mixes air with water using an air stone or
venturi air injector to create super-fine air bubbles. This
water/air mixture is sent to a vertical reaction chamber and
once inside, the tiny air bubbles travel up, accumulating dissolved
organic contaminates on their bubble walls. When the tiny bubbles
reach the top of the vessel, they form dense foam. They then
separate from the water inside the vessel and slowly climb into
the vessel's foam collimating tube. Inside the foam collimating
tube, the dry foam continues to climb until it reaches the top
of the tube and spills over into the waste collector. The benefits
of protein skimming are unique unto themselves. Protein Skimming
clarifies the system's water while increasing valuable dissolved
AquaFoam Protein Skimmers &
Flo-Thru Protein Skimmers
AquaFoam and Flo-Thru Protein Skimmers feature
our dual venturi injector manifold that includes a dual
venturi injector arrangement. Each has input valves
that allow precise air, oxygen, or ozone injection adjustments.
AquaFoam models are made of heavy-wall opaque plastic,
which blocks light from entering the reaction chamber.
This helps to control unwanted algae growth. AquaFoam
models require an operating pump to supply water to
the unit while it services the venturi manifold.
The larger capacity Flo-Thru models require a flow through
water source. These models come with a dedicated venturi
manifold pump. All models have an easy-to-service foam
collimation/waste collector top which features wash-down
nozzles. All models can be easily disassembled for routine
Using UV Sterilization for destroying waterborne pathogens requires
matching the equipment’s performance capacity to the correct
UV exposure required to completely irradiate the targeted waterborne
microorganism. Among the four types of UV light, UV-C radiation
is used for its germicidal value (disinfection) and most effective at a wavelength
of 264 nanometers (nm). This very specific light wavelength
(264nm) is very nearly generated by the UV lamp that is housed
inside of a chamber that controls the flow-path of the targeted
microorganism, maintaining an effective UV exposure. The flow
rate is the final UV performance factor and it distinguishes
the amount of time the targeted microorganism is directly exposed
to the UV-C radiation; inside the exposure chamber (UV exposure).
UV radiation does not leave a residual in the water and therefore
is harmless to animals, fish and plants. Optimal use of UV requires
three important considerations. First, identify the targeted
microorganism. Second, consider the condition (UV transmissibility)
of the water to be treated. Lastly, receive accurate performance recommendations
from the manufacturer and follow them closely.
Emperor Aquatics, Inc. SMART UV and Multi-Lamp UV Sterilizer models
Emperor Aquatics, Inc. is recognized around
the world for delivering unmatched UV information. We
believe that in order to accomplish successful UV disinfection,
accurate performance information must be shared with
the consumer. Each UV Sterilizer model that we manufacture utilizes
the highest quality UV lamps and is designed for optimal UV-C output. Our UV housings use the UV
lamp/s’ UV-C output to its maximum potential.
Emperor Aquatics, Inc. offers a wide variety of
UV models suited for a diverse list of applications.
Ozone is a powerful oxidizer, but it is also an unstable gas. Ozone is
created by drawing dry air, or more optimally, pure oxygen,
through a steel chamber containing a glass dielectric cathode.
The air/oxygen is electrified by an electrical spark. During
this process, the oxygen molecule is split into three parts
and ozone gas is created. When applied to water, ozone gas searches
out organic contaminates to oxidize. However ozone must be soluble
before it can react with waterborne contaminant's. Ozone solubility
is generally accomplished through bubbling the ozone gas up
through a column of water or through the use of a venturi injector.
The performance of ozone is affected by water temperature and
organic load. These must be considered when using ozone in your
Del Ozone Generators
Anyone who is familiar with ozone is aware of the
fact that a Corona Discharge Ozone Generator will produce
a greater concentration of ozone and operate more reliably
when oxygen is supplied as a feed gas opposed to air.
Del Ozone’s unique “Integrated Oxygen Concentrator”
is a perfect example of their commitment to producing
the lowest cost, highest quality ozone products specifically
to their integrated oxygen concentrator feature.